Older women pregnancy by assisted reproduction techniques, medical and ethical approach

Advanced reproductive age is a risk factor for women’s fertility, pregnancy loss, foetal abnormalities, stillbirth and obstetric complications. The American Society of Reproductive Medicine Ethics Committee recently evaluated the ethics of assisted reproduction practices in...

Incidence of ectopic embryos doubles in assisted reproduction

Ectopic pregnancies are a serious obstetric complication, also occurring after assisted reproduction. Several articles report that the incidence of ectopic pregnancies (ectopic embryos) after using assisted reproduction techniques is higher (double) than that of natural...

Sperm quality depends on age and it is an important risk factor when fatherhood is increasingly delayed

Recent data from molecular genetics and epidemiology provide evidence that paternal age (sperm quality) is an important risk factor for offspring. When the sperm quality of young men were compared with the sperm of older men, the latter were found to have a higher risk of...

Assisted reproduction: Do pregnancies achieved following assisted reproduction techniques have more risks?

One medical and ethical aspect of assisted reproduction that should be considered is to what extent singleton pregnancies achieved following these procedures have (or ave not) more risks than those conceived naturally. In an extensive meta-analysis that included 161,370 births...

Freezing embryos and FIV: an ethical approach

Added ethical difficulty, the damage inflicted on the embryo, which will be subjected to various freezing/thawing processes, resulting in many of them having to be discarded in the proces…. Introduction In its July 2014 edition, the journal Fertility and Sterility published...

Surrogate motherhood stirs deep controversy for both medical and ethical reasons

Results of a survey using data from clinics authorised in the UK  Surrogate motherhood can be genetic (using sperm from the contracting father or oocytes – eggs – from the contracting mother) or gestational, which refers to the implantation in the surrogate mother of...

In vitro fertilisation cause increased medical risks in children

A frequently asked question in social media is whether children born through in vitro fertilisation have a higher risk of suffering medical problems than those conceived naturally. A major systematic review that included 38 studies (Fertility and Sterility 13; 707-719, 2015) has...

Infertility. Number of women attending assisted reproduction clinics increased

The number of women aged between 15 and 44 years old who attend infertility clinics varied from 9% in 1982 to 15% in 1995; in 2002 it fell to 12%, and remained at this level over the period 2006-2010. Although the percentage of women attending these clinics has increased during...

Who decides what to do when a foetal abnormality is diagnosed; surrogate mother or contracting parents?

The “professional model” defends the right of the surrogate mother to decide whether or not she wishes to have an abortion As we know, surrogacy consists in initiating a pregnancy in a woman other than the biological mother, with the intention that, when the child is born, he or...

IVF clinic success rates. Live birth rates are much lower than those claimed in their advertising brochures.

An important medical and ethical issue is to determine the efficacy of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) following one or several fertilisation cycles. In other words, the likelihood of a woman giving birth to a live child after three or more fertilisation cycles in a IVF clinic, i.e....